﻿ Problem of Planck Scale Based on the Duality of Time Theory

## The Problem of Planck Scale Based on the Duality of Time Theory

The following article is extracted from Chapter III of the Duality of Time book, and some of the details are discussed further in other chapters, as well as Volume III that is the Ultimate Symmetry.

### The Planck Scale

The Planck scale is an essential part of the mathematical formulation of Quantum Mechanics. It is widely believed that the quantization of space is based on Planck length that makes up the fabric of the Universe. The Planck length is , which corresponds to Planck energy: and Planck time .

The Planck length is believed to be the shortest meaningful length, or the limiting distance below which the very notions of space and length cease to exist. Some researchers have suggested the existence of a fundamental particle with mass equivalent or close to Planck energy. Therefore, this particle would be enormous compared even to the Higgs particle, so it could form a micro black hole. It is not yet known whether such particles exist or have existed in the Planck scale.

In the Duality of Time Theory, since space is dynamically created in the inner levels of time, length and all other dimensions in general, are relative. So, although space and time are granular, there is no lower limits on how small they can be divided, but the ratio of space over time is always the speed of light, which is also related to the number of dimensions.

The real three-dimensional space is actually an abstract intellectual construct that is symmetrical in all directions, while actual physical objects, since they have various imperfect symmetrical features, are always less than three-dimensional, but they are also more than two-dimensional, because they are not perfectly flat. When we describe physical objects as three-dimensional, this actually means that they are enclosed within the three dimensions, i.e. their dimensions are less than three. Therefore, all corporeal and incorporeal space-time structures are best treated as fractals rather than whole-integers dimensions, as we shall explain by the end of chapter VII.

### List of Some Major Problems Solved by the Duality of Time Theory

In the following articles, we will list some of the major unsolved problems in theoretical physics and describe them in brief, stating their potential solutions according to the Duality of Time Postulate. Although many of these problems will be simply eliminated according to the new genuinely-complex time-time geometry, a detailed theoretical and mathematical analysis is required in order to explain how these problems are settled. Therefore, some of the following brief suggested solutions may be speculative.

These articles are extracted from Chapter III of the Duality of Time book, and some of the details are discussed further in other chapters, as well as Volume III that is the Ultimate Symmetry. A more concise description is also published in Time Chest.

### The Duality of Time Postulate

To understand how all these major problems could be solved so easily, please study first the Duality of Time Postulate, that has been extracted from Chapter V of the Duality of Time book.

### Message from the Author:

I have no doubt that this is the most significant discovery in the history of mathematics, physics and philosophy, ever!

This unique understanding of geometry will cause a paradigm shift in our knowledge of the fundamental nature of the cosmos and its corporeal and incorporeal structures.

Enjoy reading... , all the Best !

Mohamed bin Ali Haj Yousef

The science of Time is a noble science, that reveals the secret of Eternity. Only the Elites of Sages may ever come to know this secret. It is called the First Age, or the Age of ages, from which time is emerging.
Ibn al-Arabi [The Meccan Revelations: Volume I, page 156. - Trns. Mohamed Haj Yousef]

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