The Duality of Time Theory, that results from the Single Monad Model of the Cosmos, explains how multiplicity is emerging from absolute Oneness, at every instance of our normal time! This leads to the Ultimate Symmetry of space and its dynamic formation and breaking into the physical and psychical (supersymmetrical) creations, in orthogonal time directions. General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are complementary consequences of the Duality of Time Theory, and all the fundamental interactions become properties of the new granular complex-time geometry.
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The foundations of Quantum Mechanics were established during the first half of the 20th century, based on various experimental observations which confirmed that light, as well as matter, sometimes behave as spreading waves and sometimes as localized particles. Although it has been successfully applied in Quantum Mechanics, this wave-particle duality is still an ongoing conundrum in modern physics, and it is actually rooted in the ancient philosophical dispute between the continuum and discrete structure of space, or the atomic and substance theories of matter. The wave-particle duality is deeply embedded into the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, because all the information about a particle is encoded in its wave-function that evolves according to the Schroedinger equation. Even for particles with mass, this equation has solutions that follow the form of the wave equation, whose propagation leads to wave-like phenomena such as interference and diffraction.
What is even more perplexing, is that these wave phenomena are sometimes exhibited by single particles that are moving separately from each other, as in single-particle interference experiments. Feynman confirmed that such phenomena are absolutely impossible to explain in any classical way. The problem is that particles and waves are two contrasting phenomena, so they cannot describe the same thing at the same time. Einstein summarized this problem by saying: “We have two contradictory pictures of reality; separately neither of them fully explains the phenomena of light, but together they do.”.
Actually, the wave-particle duality is a fundamental fact of nature that cannot be explained on the level of physical multiplicity, where things are either discrete or continuous, not the two together. However, according to the Single Monad Model and the complex-time geometry that resulted from the Duality of Time postulate, discreteness and continuity are two emergent properties of the same one linear flow of time, which is perpetually re-creating objects in the inner continuous levels, as waves, and displaying them in the outer discrete level, as particles. Originally, the real flow of time is infinitesimally continuous because it is a result of the continuous revolution of the Single Monad that is perpetually re-creating the cosmos at the speed of light, but as this Single Monad “turns” from one individual state to the other, each one individual state will encounter a discrete interval of time, which is the second level that is encountered outwardly, and that is why it appears imaginary with relation to the previous level. So, on the primary level of time, space is being continuously created, and each instance of the whole space will appear as one point in the secondary level of time, that we normally encounter.
Any kind of measurement or detection necessarily means that the Single Monad at this particular instance of measurement is manifesting as the observer that is now acting on the system, and since there is only one real state, at the real flow of time, the system must necessarily collapse at this particular instance of the real time. Of course, this collapsing is not fatal, otherwise particles and objects will disappear forever, but they are re-created or excited again right after this instantaneous collapse, at which time the observer now would have moved back into an indeterminate state, and become an object amongst other objects. Therefore, uncertainty in position is inversely proportional to the number of monads that constitute the particle, and that is why small objects or particles suffer greater uncertainty. So the number of monads is actually the number of discrete states at the time of measurement with relation to a stationary observer. This number decreases as the object accelerates, because the states that are at C are indistinguishable, so the number N tends to one when velocity tends to C, in which case the momentum will be defined at M-C but the uncertainty in position becomes 100%, so all the states will overlap until they become completely indistinguishable as in the case of Bose-Einstein condensate. Inversely, when the mass tends to infinity, the number of monads tends to infinity too, and the uncertainty in position becomes zero, which describes a singularity in space-time geometry, but in that case the momentum, or energy, will be completely undefined. In any measurement the measured entity which was in the superposition state, or subject, has now collapsed into the eigenstate, or object. by the act of measurement by the observer that has just took over this instance of existence and became the subject at this very real instance of measurement.
The whole cosmos is then built on these three entities: subject-action-object, or: energy-force-matter, or: wave-operator-particle, that are three different aspects of the same reality of the Single Monad, that is the only player who is unceasingly performing these three consecutive movements whose outcome would create an individual monad that is nothing but its “shadow” which would act as an object in the next scene. The perpetual recurrence of this three-fold operation results in the accumulation of these shadows or objects that are eventually spread spatially and temporally to make the whole dynamic matter and energy in the cosmos. In total, therefore, the Single Monad performs seven primary revolutions, because each movement of the above three-fold operation consists of two states of existence-nonexistence, which in total makes the six directions or three dimensions of space, and the seventh revolution is what makes a one directional instance of the outward level of time, and this will be like resetting the instance of space to start anew. In terms of Quantum Field Theory, the first six revolutions create massive particles that becomes localized in space, which will be either the subject or the object depending on which one is current excitation, and the seventh revolution creates a massless particle that is the action or energy.
For this reason, energy is directly related to time, while mass is related to space. In other words in the inner levels of time things behave as waves, and in the outer level they become localized as physical particles, but only for the indivisible instance of time when they are observed. If we suppose the particle is composed of N individual points, or monads, each of which is an instance of the Single Monad, that is the only entity that exists in the real flow of time, then the total velocity of the particle is the time average of the velocities of all individual points, each of which is either at rest or moving at the speed of light at the particular single instance of the time of measurement. Therefore, in an object or particle of N individual points, because only one point exists in the real flow of time on the inner level of perpetual creation, the position of one of these points will be completely uncertain, because its velocity is equal to C, while the rest have been already defined, because they are now in the past, and their velocities have sequentially and abruptly collapsed from C to zero, after they have made their specific contribution to the total quantum state. When the number N is very large, as it is the case with large objects and heavy particles, the uncertainty will be very small, because only one point is completely uncertain at the real instance of time. But for small particles, such as the electron, the uncertainty could be considerably large. This uncertainty will also increase with momentum, because higher physical velocity simply means that on average more and more points are in real motion rather than rest.
This explains all the puzzling features of Quantum Mechanics, such as uncertainty, the measurement problem or the effect of observers and consciousness, as well as the reality of wave-function and its collapse; as it has been demonstrated in more detail in Chapter VI of the Duality of Time Theory.
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