The Duality of Time Theory, that results from the Single Monad Model of the Cosmos, explains how multiplicity is emerging from absolute Oneness, at every instance of our normal time! This leads to the Ultimate Symmetry of space and its dynamic formation and breaking into the physical and psychical (supersymmetrical) creations, in orthogonal time directions. General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are complementary consequences of the Duality of Time Theory, and all the fundamental interactions become properties of the new granular complex-time geometry.
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The following article is extracted from Chapter VI of the Duality of Time book, and some of the details are discussed further in other chapters, as well as Volume III that is the Ultimate Symmetry.You can also check this short video, and other videos can be found on the Duality of Time Theory YouTube Chanel.
Although the mathematical formulation of Quantum Mechanics is rigorous and sophisticated, its current description of reality is not sufficient, including many weired phenomena and conceptions such as the superposition of states, the wave-function collapse or quantum decoherence, and the wave-particle duality. One way of stating this is through the measurement problem: What constitutes a “measurement” which apparently causes the wave-function to collapse into a definite state? Unlike classical physical processes, some quantum mechanical processes, such as tunneling and entanglement, cannot be simultaneously “local”, “causal”, and “real”, but it is not obvious which of these properties must be sacrificed.
The foundations of Quantum Mechanics were established during the first half of the 20th century, based on various experimental observations which confirmed that light, as well as matter, sometimes behave as spreading waves and sometimes as localized particles. Although it has been successfully applied in Quantum Mechanics, this wave-particle duality is still an ongoing conundrum in modern physics, and it is actually rooted in the ancient philosophical dispute between the continuum and discrete structure of space, or the atomic and substance theories of matter. The wave-particle duality is deeply embedded into the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, because all the information about a particle is encoded in its wave-function that evolves according to the Schroedinger equation. Even for particles with mass, this equation has solutions that follow the form of the wave equation, whose propagation leads to wave-like phenomena such as interference and diffraction.
What is even more perplexing, is that these wave phenomena are sometimes exhibited by single particles that are moving separately from each other, as in single-particle interference experiments. Feynman confirmed that such phenomena are absolutely impossible to explain in any classical way. The problem is that particles and waves are two contrasting phenomena, so they cannot describe the same thing at the same time. Einstein summarized this problem by saying: “We have two contradictory pictures of reality; separately neither of them fully explains the phenomena of light, but together they do.”.
Actually, the wave-particle duality is a fundamental fact of nature that cannot be explained on the level of physical multiplicity, where things are either discrete or continuous, not the two together. However, according to the Single Monad Model and the complex-time geometry that resulted from the Duality of Time postulate, discreteness and continuity are two emergent properties of the same one linear flow of time, which is perpetually re-creating objects in the inner continuous levels, as waves, and displaying them in the outer discrete level, as particles. Originally, the real flow of time is infinitesimally continuous because it is a result of the continuous revolution of the Single Monad that is perpetually re-creating the cosmos at the speed of light, but as this Single Monad “turns” from one individual state to the other, each one individual state will encounter a discrete interval of time, which is the second level that is encountered outwardly, and that is why it appears imaginary with relation to the previous level. So, on the primary level of time, space is being continuously created, and each instance of the whole space will appear as one point in the secondary level of time, that we normally encounter.
Any kind of measurement or detection necessarily means that the Single Monad at this particular instance of measurement is manifesting as the observer that is now acting on the system, and since there is only one real state, at the real flow of time, the system must necessarily collapse at this particular instance of the real time. Of course, this collapsing is not fatal, otherwise particles and objects will disappear forever, but they are re-created or excited again right after this instantaneous collapse, at which time the observer now would have moved back into an indeterminate state, and become an object amongst other objects. Therefore, uncertainty in position is inversely proportional to the number of monads that constitute the particle, and that is why small objects or particles suffer greater uncertainty. So the number of monads is actually the number of discrete states at the time of measurement with relation to a stationary observer. This number decreases as the object accelerates, because the states that are at C are indistinguishable, so the number N tends to one when velocity tends to C, in which case the momentum will be defined at M-C but the uncertainty in position becomes 100%, so all the states will overlap until they become completely indistinguishable as in the case of Bose-Einstein condensate. Inversely, when the mass tends to infinity, the number of monads tends to infinity too, and the uncertainty in position becomes zero, which describes a singularity in space-time geometry, but in that case the momentum, or energy, will be completely undefined. In any measurement the measured entity which was in the superposition state, or subject, has now collapsed into the eigenstate, or object. by the act of measurement by the observer that has just took over this instance of existence and became the subject at this very real instance of measurement.
The whole cosmos is then built on these three entities: subject-action-object, or: energy-force-matter, or: wave-operator-particle, that are three different aspects of the same reality of the Single Monad, that is the only player who is unceasingly performing these three consecutive movements whose outcome would create an individual monad that is nothing but its “shadow” which would act as an object in the next scene. The perpetual recurrence of this three-fold operation results in the accumulation of these shadows or objects that are eventually spread spatially and temporally to make the whole dynamic matter and energy in the cosmos. In total, therefore, the Single Monad performs seven primary revolutions, because each movement of the above three-fold operation consists of two states of existence-nonexistence, which in total makes the six directions or three dimensions of space, and the seventh revolution is what makes a one directional instance of the outward level of time, and this will be like resetting the instance of space to start anew. In terms of Quantum Field Theory, the first six revolutions create massive particles that becomes localized in space, which will be either the subject or the object depending on which one is current excitation, and the seventh revolution creates a massless particle that is the action or energy.
For this reason, energy is directly related to time, while mass is related to space. In other words in the inner levels of time things behave as waves, and in the outer level they become localized as physical particles, but only for the indivisible instance of time when they are observed. If we suppose the particle is composed of N individual points, or monads, each of which is an instance of the Single Monad, that is the only entity that exists in the real flow of time, then the total velocity of the particle is the time average of the velocities of all individual points, each of which is either at rest or moving at the speed of light at the particular single instance of the time of measurement. Therefore, in an object or particle of N individual points, because only one point exists in the real flow of time on the inner level of perpetual creation, the position of one of these points will be completely uncertain, because its velocity is equal to C, while the rest have been already defined, because they are now in the past, and their velocities have sequentially and abruptly collapsed from C to zero, after they have made their specific contribution to the total quantum state. When the number N is very large, as it is the case with large objects and heavy particles, the uncertainty will be very small, because only one point is completely uncertain at the real instance of time. But for small particles, such as the electron, the uncertainty could be considerably large. This uncertainty will also increase with momentum, because higher physical velocity simply means that on average more and more points are in real motion rather than rest.
This explains all the puzzling features of Quantum Mechanics, such as uncertainty, the measurement problem or the effect of observers and consciousness, as well as the reality of wave-function and its collapse; as it has been demonstrated in more detail in Chapter VI of the Duality of Time Theory.
The starting state of creation was void, that is the state of absolute earth (0, 0), which by itself is literally “nothing”, but it is the readiness of nature to accept creation. This void is described by “absolute earth” because it has infinite inertial mass, that is absolutely “dead” and “dark” because it does not include any motion or energy, so it is absolutely cold and dry. However, being absolutely empty, it is described by the “willingness” to accept life and motion.
Henceforth, when the Real manifested in the Form of Beauty, that is also described as absolute Light, Life, and Ability, the state of vacuum was introduced, that is also the element of absolute “fire” (c, c) that filled the void, and the two states (0, 0) and (c, c) were entangled; all this without any sense of space or time, which are null with respect to Light itself, whose speed is absolute, while the sense of space, time and motion are conceivable only for external observers that are non-existing yet. Therefore, this creation scenario is only a conceptual description with absolute ontological reality, or “being”, that has not “become” physical yet.
When Allah wanted to create the world, He split the above entangled states of heavens and earth, but not into the separate original states (0, 0) and (c, c), rather He split them into “water” and “air”, which are (c, 0) and (0, c), respectively; which means splitting the 3D flat space of constant entities into the two orthogonal worlds 2D-T and 2D+T, that are the physical and psychological worlds as we described in sections 8.4 and 2.3. With this splitting of the originally entangled states of vacuum and void, space and time were defined, and all the subsequent physical and psychological dynamic states that are various spatial and temporal superposition of the original two states.
Multiplicity appeared in the creation only because earth and fire were split into water and air, which permitted the emergence of space and time, otherwise since absolute earth is void and absolute fire is Light, so Existence was absolute One Eternal Unchanging Being, as was originally described by Parmenides and Zeno as we showed in chapter II.
Nevertheless, even after this splitting, the original states are still entangled, but they now become non-local and relative to individual observers. If we recall that the outer time is imaginary, while space is the real time, we conclude that the original state of Eternal Being, that is the Single Monad, is not changing with time, because it is always in the state of being, i.e. (c, c), but for the entities of existence that are the individual monads that are the images or forms that the Single Monad is scanning as it goes through all the states of existence, at the speed of light, i.e. at once, so for any such individual monads, things, which are the other monads, are in dynamic physical and psychical entangled states.
For each individual monad, in order to continue in existence, the two entangled physical and psychical states: (c, 0) and (0, c) are continuously annihilating into (c, c) and splitting again, every moment of time. This is actually what defines the moments of time, and it is all relative between the different entities or monads, so for example a person in deep sleep is experiencing less time than others who are awake. At the same time this is what causes perception or consciousness, i.e. as a result of the above annihilation that produce a photon of light (c, c) which is the information or knowledge, be it either through hearing 1D, seeing 2D or imagination 3D. That is why Ibn al-Arabi explained that the creations are always seeking to realize in the Real, which is the primary cause of motion and action as we will see in chapter VII (section 4).
However, these information bits are actually quantum bits, because the annihilation here is a quantum interaction between the two entities: (c, 0) and (0, c), which whose position and momentum are fully undetermined and fully determined, for the first, and the opposite for the second, and when they meet they become both undetermined at the present instance when they are described by (c, c), since the Single Monad is taking their form at this particular instance. However, as soon as this instance is over, this state becomes in the past, or void, that is described by (0, 0), and the Single goes on to re-create the other forms.
Therefore, the outcome of this collapsing from (c, c) to (0, 0), which is fully indeterminate, adds up to the total macroscopic state of the physical object, on one hand, and psychical consciousness, on the other, and the effect is mostly localized because of the large number of monads constituting the object, but in microscopic situations the uncertainty principle is prevailed. Brilliant ideas and instantaneous sudden problem solutions can sparkle in the mind in the same manner as quantum tunneling and non-local or non-temporal interactions.
Similarly, other examples of the continuous interaction between the physical and psychical worlds, include listening to music, poetry or recitations, or looking at beautiful natural or artistic sceneries, which all can be induce various inspirations.
However, what is even more interesting, is the effect of the psychical world on the physical world, which include for example: telekinetic, healing, and Alchemy, as we will discuss further in chapter VII.
As we have summarized in chapter III, after the Copenhagen interpretation, various other new theories have been introduced, which tried to explain the weired quantum behavior of microscopic objects. Although some interpretations have introduced new radical ideas, those ideas do not actually explain the main conceptual conflicts, such as the wave-particle duality, entanglement and the effect of observers. Additionally, the conceptual incompatibility between Relativity and Quantum theories is still persisting, although both have been tested rigorously and proved equally successful when applied separately in their own domains. Therefore, any successful interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, must be based on revolutionary concepts that can unequivocally explain the most fundamental quantum behavior which stems from the actual nature of uncertainty and wave-particle duality.
The Duality of Time exposes a deeper understanding of time, based on the indivisible ontological reality of oneness, from which all the phenomenological dualities in nature emerge and become complementary. This hypothesis takes all the fundamental principles and observations a profound grand step deeper, starting from the principle of causality in physics and philosophy, number theory and geometry in mathematics, perception and consciousness in psychology, in addition to many specific principles in these various fields, such as the exclusion and the uncertainty principles, the speed of light invariance and the cosmological principle, to mention a few of the main fundamental concepts in these various fields, all of which become consequences of the Duality of Time. As we have seen in sections 8, the Duality of Time explains all natural phenomena in terms of the genuinely-complex time-time geometry, including all aspects of the physical world, as well as the psychical and spiritual worlds, which opens the way to whole new fields of sciences, starting from understanding the relation between physical phenomena and consciousness.
The exclusion principle is one of the fundamental observation in quantum physics, which was introduced in 1924, to resolve the inconsistencies between the observed molecular spectra and the predictions of Quantum Mechanics, as we have explained in chapter III. This principle states that “there cannot exist an atom in such a quantum state that two electrons within [it] have the same set of quantum numbers.” Shortly after that the property of spin was observed in the famous Stern-Gerlach experiment. From the calculations performed by Schroedinger for the energy levels of hydrogen, the distributions of probabilities for electron positions and locations are related to four quantum properties: orbital, shape, inclination, and spin, each of which has a quantum number and they collectively describe the quantum state of the electron.
So the Pauli exclusion principle demands that no two electrons within an atom may have the same values of all four quantum numbers, which gives rise to the different possible arrangements of the orbitals that lead to the organization of the periodic table of chemical elements.
This also lead to the main field of quantum statistics, that includes Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions of particles over energy states. The first describes particles that obey Pauli exclusion principle, thus called fermions, having spin-half, and the latter describes particles that do not obey this principle, thus called bosons, having integer spins.
This exclusion principle resulted from the observations of atomic spectra, supported later by the various theoretical and experimental studies on spin and magnetic properties of moving charges, but there is no fundamental explanation as to why these various discrete states are imposed and can not be duplicated together in the same atom!
According to the Duality of Time, all particles and objects are sequential manifestations of the Single Monad, that can either be in the inner level that constitutes the real dimensions of space, or the outer level that is the imaginary dimension of time. Therefore, bosons are “space particle” while fermions are “time particles”, not the opposite, because the latter are created internally at the speed of light, like everything else, but they move through the outer imaginary time, at a limited velocity that can not reach the speed of light, while bosons move in space and time together at the speed of light. Therefore, bosons are described by (c, c) while fermions are described by (c, v), and the reason why we have various generations of each type is due to the number of dimensions. Here, however, there are many details which may contradict the established, but incomplete, conclusions of the Standard Model, although these contradictions can be resolved easily but this requires detailed analysis beyond this book.
Nevertheless, we can say that in principle we should have seven degrees of spin, and these are the same seven heavens, or celestial orbs, that we described in chapter VII (section 2.3); each corresponding to one degree of freedom, or one level of time, and each two opposite consecutive time directions make up one dimension of space, which is why two complementary fermions, such as the electron and the positron, each of spin half, can annihilate into one boson of spin one, and the opposite is also possible.
However, the most fundamental reason behind the exclusion principle is the reality of oneness; that in the real flow of time only one real entity exist, at any given discrete instance, that is the Single Monad that is always moving at the speed of light; because with regard to itself it is always in the state of being (c, c), which forms the 3D flat space for some hypothetical external observer, as we described in section 8.
If the world remained in this state of oneness, or unity, it would have been described by absolute Bose-Einstein statistics, which means that all its (constant) entities are non-interacting indistinguishable “particles” that occupy the same state, such as what happens in an ideal super-fluid, which is the state of “water” from which Allah made everything living, or moving, as we will see in chapter VII (section 1.4).
The creation of the world happened as a result of splitting this ideal space, which introduced the outer level of time in which fermions started to move and take various different states. The reason why these states are discrete, and therefore no two particles can exist in exactly the same state, is because they exist in the imaginary time, which is the very fact that caused them to become multiple. If remained in the real flow of time, all hypothetical particles become indistinguishable One or whole, so those which turns out to the imaginary time, by being multiplied by the imaginary number unit j which produces an abrupt rotation by as we explained in chapter IV. This is exactly what gives them spin-half with relation to the observer who is necessarily in orthogonal time dimension, since that is what it means for them to be in imaginary time.
So since all fermions are kinetically moving in the outer time which is imaginary, they must exist in different states, because we are observing them from orthogonal direction(s), otherwise we would not see them many. In contrast to that, because bosons are in the real level of time with respect to the observer, they all appear in the same state even though they may be infinite.
The first case is like looking at the various points of the inner surface of a sphere surrounding the observer, so he or she has to move around, even by imagination, to distinguish between the different points, while the second case is like looking along a straight line which has an infinite number of points, but they are indistinguishable and they all are perceived as one.
As we have introduced in chapter V, if we suppose the particle is composed of individual geometrical points, or monads, each of which is an instance of the Single Monad, then these points are created internally at the speed of light in the real flow of time, and appear to be collectively moving in the outward imaginary time at the limited speed ; thus the particle is described by (c, v). The total kinetic velocity of the particle is the time average of the velocities of all individual points, each of which is either at rest or moving at the speed of light at the particular single instance of the time of measurement, as given by the equation: already mentioned in chapter V.
Therefore, in an object or particle of N individual points, because only one point actually exists in the real flow of time on the inner level of perpetual creation, the position of this point is completely undetermined, because its velocity is equal to c, while the rest have been already defined, because they are now in the past, and their velocities had been sequentially and abruptly collapsed from c to zero, after they had made their corresponding specific contribution to the total quantum state which defines the position of the object with relation to the observer.
When the number N is very large, as it is the case with large objects and heavy particles, the uncertainty will be very small, because only one point is completely uncertain at the real instance of time. But for small particles, such as the electron, the uncertainty could be considerably large, because it is inversely proportional to N, thus we can write that .
This uncertainty in position will also increase with (the imaginary) velocity , or momentum , with relation to the observer, because higher velocity means that on average more and more points are becoming in the real motion, at , rather than rest. So the number of monads is actually the number of discrete states at the time of measurement with relation to a stationary observer. This number decreases as the object accelerates, because the states that are at are indistinguishable, so the number tends to one when velocity tends to , in which case the momentum will be defined at but the uncertainty in position becomes , so all the states will overlap until they become completely indistinguishable as in the case of Bose-Einstein statistics as we have seen in section 4.2. When the mass tends to infinity, the number of states tends infinity too, and the uncertainty becomes in position zero, which describes a singularity in space-time geometry, but in that case the momentum, or energy, will be completely undefined.
If the geometrical points of the object were all real at the same real instance of time, as we usually intuitively think, the object should become “lighter” as it moves faster because more points are moving at the speed of light, until when all its points are moving at that cosmological speed, then it becomes all-light and its mass becomes zero. That does not happen in reality, and that is why Relativity is counter-intuitive. In reality, however, because this motion is happening in the outward imaginary time, which is perpendicular on the real flow of time that is creating space, and both are related according to the hyperbolic split-complex geometry as we have showed in chapter V, which means that all objects are effectively at rest at the time of measurement, so their mass is always the rest mass, and their total complex momentum remains invariant, even when the velocity changes: , thus: . That is exactly why the effective mass appears to be increasing with velocity: , because we always need the same energy to accelerate it to the speed of light no matter how much its initial velocity is, since it is effectively zero. Without this hyperbolic relation between the real and imaginary momentums, it is not possible to derive this relativistic relation which is the only way that leads to the exact mathematical derivation of the equivalence principle as well as the mass-energy equivalence as we have seen in chapter V.
The energy of the whole existence is the energy of the 3D flat space described by (c, c), which contains all possible entities in the world. We shall denote this “maximum energy state” as “1” or “Monad”. Opposite to that is the state of non-existence, or void, that corresponds to (0, 0), and we shall denote this “ground energy state” as “0” (E0=0). Contrary, to our common conception, the maximum energy state corresponds to zero mass, while the ground state corresponds to infinite mass. This is because the state of existence is absolutely one, while void contains infinite possibilities which require infinite time to become realized, while existence is realized every instance. Still, however, energy and mass are equivalent, but not equal! So potentially, the energy or mass of the world is infinite and continuous, but in reality it is finite and discrete. This discreteness of energy or mass, depends on the levels of time and the resulting dimensions of space. On the normal level this energy appears in the form of mass, while in lower dimensions it takes other forms such as electric charge and color charges.
Therefore, the property of mass is the coupling between the points of 2D space, that are kinetically moving in the imaginary time direction, while we are wrongly imagining them to be co-existing together in 3D space. So at any given real instance, only one point is real, and in order to maintain an object of N>1 points we need the imaginary time and the corresponding inertial mass. The case of N=1 corresponds to photons and other massless particles, depending on the number of dimensions.
Therefore, all excited states, above the ground state E0, correspond to particles with mass, when the number of monads is more than one: N>1, because only one of them exist at any real instance of time, so we need at least two instance, or a duration of time, to create any of such particles. This duration of time is translated inwardly into space composing of at least two points, although in reality, since mass a property of three-dimensional objects, we need at least eight points to create one such three-dimensional objects. In all cases, there is a minimum non-zero energy or mass that microscopic objects can have, because zero corresponds to absolute void.
This provide the conceptual ground that can prove the Yang-Mills existence and mass gap, one of the unsolved problem in physics and mathematics as we described in chapter III, and one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems defined by the Clay Mathematics Institute. It was accurately anticipated by Jaffe and Witten in the Official Problem Description that establishing the existence of Yang-Mills theory and mass gap requires the introduction of fundamental new ideas both in physics and in mathematics.
Everything in the cosmos, as it has been verified by many experiments, is not only waves, and not only particles; while these two concepts are both contrasting and exclusive, at the same time. This means that they can’t together describe the same thing at the same time, and there is no other concept in the current physics apart from waves and particles. Therefore, in order to provide any complete and reasonable interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, we need to explain this wave-particle duality.
All dualities in nature are the consequence of the continuum and discretuum complementary representation of phenomenological multiplicity, which is an artificial dual exposition of the oneness of metaphysical reality, embodied by the recurrence of the Single Monad that is creating all entities in the world. Consequently, because of this ultimate metaphysical oneness of reality, space-time and matter are essentially discrete but they are still potentially continuous because of its infinite creativity, i.e. its unlimited ability to manifest in ever new forms through the perpetual recurrence of inward and outward time dimensions. As we have seen in chapter III, the concept of “potential infinity” was employed by Aristotle, and it was the only way he could refute Zeno’s paradoxes of motion and plurality.
This means that the future is potentially continuous and infinite, behaving like waves, but as soon it is measured or observed, by becoming in the present and then ceasing into the past, it loses this potentiality and becomes discrete and defined, which is what characterizes the physical particles. On the other hand, events or phenomena which passed into the past have completely ceased out of existence and they cannot be defined regardless whether they have been observed or not, though their effects might still follow at another future instance. Any records or memories of events or effects are treated as new potential continuous existence until the time of their inspection when this potentiality collapses again.
Therefore, according to the Duality of Time, as a result of the continuous creation, multiplicity is revealed through the inner levels of time in which space and matter are dynamically created, and then they evolve over the outer level. Although the reality of time in both levels is discrete, on the inner level, space will appear potentially continuous due to the vast possible manifestations that spread over the three outward dimensions and any other inward curled dimensions that form matter particles. Originally, the real flow of time is infinitesimally continuous because it is a result of the continuous and steady revolution of the Single Monad, but as this Single Monad “turns” from one individual monad to the other, each one individual monad will encounter a discrete interval of time, which is the second level that is encountered outwardly, and that is why it appears imaginary with relation to the previous level. So, on the primary level of time, space is being continuously created, and each instance of the whole space will appear as one point in the secondary level of time, that we normally encounter.
In addition to the computer monitor analogy that we described in chapter IV, as another illustration of this instantaneous creation of space, we can think of the continuous revolution of the Earth that creates days, months and years, so locally time appears continuous, but it is divided globally into days and other discrete periods that are defined only with relation to other celestial objects.
If we suppose that we are inside the Earth without knowing how it is moving in space, we would only encounter continuous existence and continuous time. But if we suppose we are watching the Earth from somewhere far away, with a constant source of light shining on it while it is revolving, we would only see its fluctuation between day and night, which will be interpreted as existence-nonexistence. Now if we suppose many such earths close to each other and extending infinitely in space, they will appear popping in and out of existence at various intervening time durations, so in total they may form some varying patterns that we will describe as a dynamic universe, while in fact they are all created from the superposition of the only two primary states of day and night; corresponding in our case to existence and non-existence, or and .
Similarly, from our perspectives, being inside the universe, the continuous revolution of the Single Monad is not confined in time, rather: it is what is creating time, by re-creating the individual monads whose existence will appear to us instantaneous, since we are also being re-created. Because we are in the state of existence, we only see things as they are always in existence, so their existence appears to be continuous, but this even physically cannot be true simply because the presence is always being converted into past, and the past does not have any existential reality, neither does the future. What exists of time is only the presence that by definition does not have a duration, i.e. it is zero-time. So in fact existence is always coming to be in zero time, as discrete instances of the of the continuous and infinite real flow of time that is generated by the constant revolution of the Single Monad.
On the level of multiplicity, if anything persisted for a continuous duration of time, no matter how short, it would encounter an infinite number of events with relation to other things, because at any instance of the infinite instances of this continuous short duration there would be some relative motion, otherwise if absolutely nothing changes time would not flow. But if we have infinite number of motions we have infinite energy! Therefore, the Re-creation Principle is the only way to avoid infinity on the level of multiplicity, where we are habitually staying.
However, any kind of measurement or detection necessarily means that the Single Monad at this particular instance of measurement is manifesting as the observer that is now acting on the system, and since there is only one state of existence and one state of nonexistence, at the real flow of time, the system must necessarily collapse into nonexistence, or particle, because at this particular time the observer was taking on the existence state, so the whole observed multiplicity of individual monads must be all in the nonexistence state, at this particular instance of the real time. Of course, as we shall see further in section 9.5, this collapsing is not fatal, otherwise particles and objects will disappear forever, but they are re-created or excited again right after this instantaneous collapse, at which time the observer now would have moved back into an indeterminate state, and become an object amongst other objects.
In other words, the collapse that always happens as a result of measurement or detection, means that the measured entity, which was in the superposition state, i.e. “subject”, has now collapsed into the eigenstate, i.e. “object”, by the “act” of measurement by the observer that has just took over this instance of existence and became the subject at this very real instance of measurement. The whole cosmos is then built on these three entities: “subject-action-object”, or: “energy-force-matter”, or: “wave-operator-particle”, that are three different aspects of the same reality of the Single Monad, that is the only player who is unceasingly performing these three consecutive movements whose outcome would create an individual monad that is nothing but its “shadow” which would act as an object in the next scene. The perpetual recurrence of this three-fold operation results in the accumulation of these shadows or objects that are eventually spread spatially and temporally to make the whole dynamic matter and energy in the cosmos.
In total, therefore, the Single Monad performs seven primary revolutions, because each movement of the above three-fold operation consists of two states of existence-nonexistence, which in total makes the six directions or three dimensions of space, and the seventh revolution is what makes a one directional instance of the outward level of time, and this will be like resetting the instance of space to start anew. In terms of Quantum Field Theory, the first six revolutions create massive particles that becomes localized in space, which will be either the subject or the object depending on which one is current excitation, and the seventh revolution creates a massless particle that is the action or energy. For this reason, energy is directly related to time, while mass is related to space.
Accordingly, the two concepts of waves and particles remain separate and exclusive natures of existence, it is not that particles are associated with waves or vice versa, rather: it is either waves or particles, or: either energy or matter, or: either existence or nonexistence, when they are mixed together and averaged they are observed together in relative ways in our level of space-time, but on the primary level the presence is always energy and the past is mass. Or we can say that the past and the future are vacuum and the presence is always being excited from the future and damped into the past. The difference between the future and the past, both being described as vacuum, is that the past is a “dead vacuum” or “void” while the future is still possible to become present, although not everything is possible to exist, and not everything possible will exist.
In a similar manner, we can now give an exact account of the collapse of the wave function. The superposition state of a system with of individual monads comes from averaging the dual-states of these monads, all of which had already made its contribution except the one monad that is the current image of the Single Monad at the very real instance of time of measurement, which is going to be determined right in the following instance. Therefore, because the state of any individual monad automatically collapses into zero after it makes its contribution to the system, once the moment passes, all systems are determined automatically, although their state may remain unknown as far as it is not measured.
The act of measurement only provides knowledge of the state. However, if the number of monads in a system is very small, and since the observer is necessarily part of the system, as we shall see further in section 9.6, the measurement will have a large impact on determining the eigenstate.
Accordingly, the state of Schroedinger’s cat, as described in chapter III, after the box is closed, is either dead or alive; so it is already determined, but we only know that after we open the box, provided that opening the box does not have any influence on the radioactive material that is inside the box.
Any kind of measurement or detection, necessarily means that the observer, or the measuring device, at this particular instance of measurement, is the subject that is acting on the system; and since there is only one state of existence and one state of nonexistence, at this real instance of inward time, the system must necessarily collapse into the passive state, i.e. it becomes the object or particle, because at this particular time the observer is taking on the active state. Of course, this collapsing is not fatal, otherwise particles and objects will disappear forever, but they are re-created or excited again into a new state right after this instantaneous collapse, at which time the observer now would have moved back into an indeterminate state, and becomes an object amongst other objects.
The uncertainty and non-locality of quantum mechanical phenomena result from the fact that all particles are always instantly connected through the Single Monad throughout space and time, or the inward and outward levels of time, which respectively produce the normal spatial entanglement as well as the temporal entanglement. Therefore, entanglement is the general underlying principle that connects all parts of the universe in space and time, but it is mostly reduced into simple coherence, which may also dissipate as soon as the system becomes complex. In other words: spatial and temporal entanglement is what defines space-time structure, rather than direct proximity. In this deeper sense, the speed of light is never surpassed even in extreme cases, such as the EPR and quantum tunneling, since there is no transmutation, but the object is re-created in new places which could be at the other end of the Universe, and even in a delayed future time.
Consequently, whether the two particles are separated in space or in time, they can still interfere with each other in the same way because they are described by the same wave function either as one single entangled state or two coherent states. The wave behavior of particles in each case is a result of the instantaneous uncertainty in determining their final physical properties, such as position or momentum, as they are sequentially created by the Single Monad, in the inward time level (for spatial entanglement) or the outward time level (for temporal entanglement), both of which are in fact temporal because both particles are instances in the one dimensional real flow of time. This uncertainty is due to the fact that the Single Monad, being a simple massless metaphysical entity, is always moving at the speed of light, which makes its momentum determined by p=hf/c but its position undefined at the present instant. When the instant -of the actual flow of time that is still creating the current frame of space with all its contents, including the interfering particle- passes, the wave collapses and its energy is counted towards the mass and energy of the particle.
Spatial entanglement occurs between the points in the internal level of time, while temporal entanglement is between the points of the outer level, so in reality it is all temporal since all the points of space and time are generated in one chronological order that first spreads spatially in the inner metaphysical level and then temporally in the outer physical level.
Therefore, and as we described in section 9.2, the uncertainty in both cases results because, at every instance of the real flow of time, the position of one metaphysical point is completely undefined, and will be defined in the following instance. Thus, the collapse of the wave-function is automatic, even if no observation is made. Observation only gives us knowledge of the final state, as we also described in section 9.5.
Normal interference is usually explained as the superposition of the two waves in as they overlap in space. According to the Single Monad Model, each particle, or wave, is made of a certain sequential number of monads which are coupled as a closed system, in a manner that gives the specific properties of the particle when it was emitted from the source, or since its last interaction with the environment. Therefore, when two particles meet and interfere in the usual way, this happens because they reflect two coherent states of the source. Nevertheless, even when these two particles, or states, are separated by a relatively long time -as it happens in single particle interference-, they will still be able to interfere as far as they are still coherent states of the source.
In fact, even when the two particles or waves meet in space, they are still created in sequence in the inner time level, so the only difference between normal interference and single particle interference is that the time that is separating the particles or waves is longer in the latter case, but this does not affect the result as far as coherence is maintained.
In either case, the final position at which the particle lands on the screen is determined by the inherent uncertainty, that accompanies the wave behavior of the particle along its trajectory, because at every instance one of its monads is completely undetermined, as we described above. This uncertainty is redefined after each interaction which is why it may subsequently lose its coherence with the source, while the final observation causes complete collapse of the wave function, thus revealing only the particle behavior, with a fixed position.
Therefore, any detection of the state of the particle will cause either decoherence or collapse, and cause the interference pattern to be lost, even when the detection is performed on the particle’s remote entangled partner, for example as in Wheeler’s delayed choice and quantum eraser experiments, i.e. even if the detection happens after the particle already passed through any one of the slits.
Since the whole universe in space is a closed system, all changes in it are necessarily internal changes only. Therefore, any change in any part of the universe will inevitably cause instantaneous synchronizing change(s) in other parts. In normal cases the effect of the ongoing process of cosmic re-creation is not noticeable because of the many possible changes that could happen in any part of the complex system and the corresponding distraction of our limited means of attention and perception. So, being part of this closed system, the observer can have a considerable role in determining its state. In normal circumstances, however, the effect of the observer on the surrounding world is limited only through physical forces, because his or her mind or monad constitutes only a very insignificant part of this whole world. On much smaller scales, and after isolating other stronger causes, the effect of consciousness will be more detectable.
This distinctive mental capacity might be significantly different from one person to another, and from time to time, because it is subject to quantum uncertainty, which may explain some people’s inherent capability to perform certain telekinetic and telepathic actions, which have been criticized for lack of proper controls and repeatability.
Therefore, this new conception of space construction can provide a hypothetical explanation for diverse para-psychological phenomena, that are yet beyond the scope of the current laws of physics. This is of course a diverse subject that is far beyond the scope of this article, but we can clearly see how the principle of ongoing re-creation is capable of explaining many diverse natural and supernatural phenomena.
The re-creation does not deliver any new monads; rather, it only may change some of the different states of existing monads. This means that the universe is like a global manifold standing wave, or a closed system of quantized field excitations, where any perturbation at a particular location will cause subsequent coherent synchronization in other locations. This is usually expressed through the laws of conservation, for example, of energy and momentum, that are normally applied only in local or connected space-time. With this novel view of re-creation, the conservation laws can be applied in any isolated system, but the isolation is not necessarily spatial.
Additionally, this application of the Re-creation Principle on the whole world as a closed system of field excitations can actually provide the first natural explanation of causality itself, that is not directly related to space or even time; i.e. it allows non-local and even non-temporal interactions.
In regular macroscopic situations, the perturbation causes gradual or smooth, but still discrete, motion or change; because of the vast number of neighboring individual monads, the effect of any perturbation will be limited to adjacent monads and will decease very quickly after short distance, when energy is consumed. This kind of apparent motion is limited by the speed of light, because the change can appear infinitesimally continuous in space.
In the special case when a small closed system is isolated as a small part of the universe, and this isolation is not necessarily spatial isolation, as it is the case of the two entangled particles in the EPR, then the effect of any perturbation will appear instantaneous because it will be transferred only through a small number of monads, irrespective of their positions in space. Furthermore, when the observer or gauge is part of such a small closed system, it will have a significant effect on determining the state into which the wave-function of this system will collapse. In normal macroscopic situations, the effect of the observer is not noticeable for the very same reason that enforces the speed of light limit, i.e. it is dissipated over a large number of monads that are normally spatially isolated. So in the macroscopic situations the effect of the observer or measurement will be limited only through physical forces, but in small isolated or entangled systems consciousness may have a considerable effect on the collapse of wave function.
In the following articles, we will list some of the major unsolved problems in theoretical physics and describe them in brief, stating their potential solutions according to the Duality of Time Postulate. Although many of these problems will be simply eliminated according to the new genuinely-complex time-time geometry, a detailed theoretical and mathematical analysis is required in order to explain how these problems are settled. Therefore, some of the following brief suggested solutions may be speculative.
These articles are extracted from Chapter III of the Duality of Time book, and some of the details are discussed further in other chapters, as well as Volume III that is the Ultimate Symmetry. A more concise description is also published in Time Chest.
|The Arrow of Time Problem||Logical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics||Problem of Physical Information|
|The Problem of Causality||The Planck Scale Problem||Problem of Magnetic Monopoles|
|EPR and the Problem of Non-Locality||Problem of Quantum Gravity||Mass Generation Mechanism|
|Homogeneity and the Horizon Problem||Problem of Neutrino Masses||Problem of Color Confinement|
|The Hierarchy Problem||Problem of Cosmic Inflation||Problem of Yang-Mills Theory|
|Problem of Unification of Fundamental Interactions||Problem of Super-Symmetry||Problem of Baryon Asymmetry|
|Problem of Dark Matter||Problem of Dark Energy||Cosmological Constant Problems|